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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem

CHAPTER SIX ZIONIST TERRORISM AND CRIMES IN PALESTINE 1947
Part 1 of 4

In 1947 Jewish terrorism intensified and became more ruthless. The cooperation between the Irgun Z'vai Leumi, the Stern Gang and the Hagana made it possible for the terrorist organizations to intensify their campaign against the British administration and the Arabs throughout the country.

A Stern Gang pamphlet found in Hadar Hacarrnel, Haifa, on May 7, 1947, illustrates their fanaticism and intellectual confusion: (1)

Innocent blood will not be shed, but the blood of rioters, pogrom-heroes and murderers will be shed, for it is defiled. And so is the blood of each Briton, ruling beyond the frontiers of his country. The British blood-sucker, to be a soldier, a constable, a clerk, so long as he obeys orders to exploit and murder, he is indicted. He is here to guard the imperialist rule and prevent the rescue of the Jews. For this his blood will be shed.

It is unavoidable that in this war innocent blood will be shed as well, but there has never been a war or revolution 'with all comforts," without privations, without destruction, without bloodshed. Let those among us who are afraid of bloodshed and destruction say openly that they surrender to a New Munich, to each White Paper, which leads to a ghetto and ultimately to new gas-chambers a la Auschwitz. They sit in their homes waiting for the day of the great slaughter which Bevin and his partner Kaukji are preparing for us, waiting for Jewish youth to be mobilized by the Anglo-Saxons in their war against the Soviet Union. They cry over defiled British blood, but remain silent over the blood of innocent refugees. The blood of the strong one must be protected, the blood of the weak one may be shed. Why don't they try to force the British to stop bloodshed, why do they force us?

Why are you shouting from your walls (Hahoma Wall) about innocent Jewish blood being shed by the "terrorists," while not admitting the murder of 230 innocent refugees of the "Patria"? How dare you accuse us of murder while you killed tenfold as many Jews on a single occasion? Reply!

Jewish blood is sacred and pure. The blood of Britons suppressing foreign countries is defiled. Therefore it will be shed to prevent innocent blood from being shed.

The Jewish terrorist organisations even tried to place bombs in the buildings of the British government offices in London, such as the building in the Colonial Office and they sent letters containing explosives to several British officials. The Stern Gang pamphlet refers to the bomb in the Colonial Office.(2)

Scotland Yard publicly promised to arrest the woman who laid the bomb in the Colonial Office within 48 hrs. Hundreds of hours have passed and Scotland Yard's promise remains unfulfilled. They are now telling stories about "a Jewish terrorist of Polish or Czech nationality" whose arrest is dependent on the cooperation of the French Surete ....

We learn that the demand for detective novels describing Scotland Yard's activities has slackened to the lowest possible level ...

The following are examples of the Jewish terrorist crimes committed in 1947:

1. Placing mines in government departments or houses and exploding them by remote control devices, thereby killing many British and Palestinian officials and civilians.

2. Sabotaging the Iraq Petroleum Company pipelines.

3. Attacking government buildings during the night and placing explosives, thereby destroying nearby businesses and injuring many civilians.

4. Placing bombs in British banks, such as Barclays Bank.

5. Blowing up military and police trucks.

6. Blowing up boats used for transshipment of illegal immigrants.

7. Placing bombs near police headquarters in several cities.

8. Using mines to blow up oil trains.

9. Robbing of Jewish banks, such as the Palestine Discount Bank in Tel Aviv.

10. Destruction of oil tanks owned by the Shell Oil Company.

11. Placing bombs in Arab cinemas, causing death and injury to several innocent civilians.

12.Placing bombs in Arab cafes, and after exploding them by remote control, shooting at customers, killing and injuring many people.

13. Bombing railway stations and placing bombs on railway lines and destroying trains.

14. Attack on Jewish-owned restaurants whose owners refused to pay money to the terrorists.

15. Assassination of British military officers and British and Arab police officers.

16. Placing incendiary bombs in Arab markets.

17. Attacking Jewish cafes which were used by British troops.

18. Throwing bombs from passing cars into Arab crowds, killing and injuring many civilians.

19. Abduction of British officers as hostages, torturing and, in some cases, killing them.

The details of these outrages and many others are contained in documents in the Public Record Office, London.

These outrageous Zionist crimes were subjects of debate in the British House of Commons. On the 28th of January, 1947, Oliver Stanley, member of Parliament from West Bristol, asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether he had any statement to make about the recent outrages in Palestine.(3)

The Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. Creech Jones) replied: I have so far received only summary reports, and in spite of my prompt efforts to obtain the completest information, the fuller report which is expected from the High Commissioner, has not yet reached me. It appears, however, that at 5.10 p.m. on 26th January a British civilian, Major H. A. 1. Collins, was abducted by terrorists from his flat in Jerusalem. He is believed to be seriously injured. At 12.35 p.m. yester- day, in Tel Aviv, Judge Ralph Windham was abducted by eight aimed Jews as he was leaving the District Court. So far as is known he was not injured. The car used in this abduction was later found abandoned at Ramat Gan. Extensive military searches following these abductions have, according to the latest report in my hands, so far yielded no results.

It is believed that these abductions may be prompted by the desire to take hostages against the execution of Dov Gruner, a Jewish terrorist under sentence of death following conviction by a military court and confirmation by the General Officer Commanding. Yesterday afternoon intimation was received that an application for special leave to appeal on behalf of Dov Gruner was being lodged. The General Officer Commanding accordingly was obliged to grant a delay.

Immediately following the kidnapping of Judge Windham, the High Commissioner summoned Mrs Meyerson, Mr. Rokach and Mr. Kaplan, leaders of the Jewish community, and gave them an ultimatum that unless Judge Windham and Major Collins were produced unharmed within 48 hours, he proposed to withdraw all civil administration and facilities from Tel Aviv, Petah Tikvah and the Ramat Gan area, which would be cordoned off and be placed under the orders of a military commander.

I know with what detestation the House will have learned of these latest criminal outrages. The abduction of a judge from his own court must arouse a special sense of horror, for such a crime is an attack on the very foundations of society, and of civil government.

His Majesty's Government have recently brought into review the whole problem of terrorism in Palestine, and, in consultation with the High Commissioner and the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, have issued a strong directive intended to ensure the application of more effective military and police measures for dealing with the situation. Vigorous searches have already been undertaken in certain areas, and the military and the police have actively cooperated. An appeal has also been made to all responsible elements among the Jews to give their full cooperation with the Administration in rooting out this evil. The suppression of terrorism demands the active participation of the whole Jewish community and also a direct cooperation by the Jewish Agency which, I regret, has not been forthcoming to the extent essential for preventing these acts of terrorism. His Majesty's Government will continue to give their unreserved support to the Palestine civil andmilitary authorities in applying all possible measures for bringing a speedy end to these despicable evils.

I make one more solemn appeal to the leaders of the community and to each individual Jew to recognise the end to which such crimes must lead, and to prove that they have the will and the power to maintain the ordinary decencies of civilised life and the essential conditions for the continuance of civil government. I warn the Jews in Palestine, and those who condone such brutalities, that the course recently taken by events must lead to the placing of the country under full military control with all that implies.

Mr. Churchill: I am not quite sure whether the right hon. Gentleman did not suggest that the death sentence upon this Jew had been respited on account of the hostages which had been taken by the Jewish terrorists. If that were so, I should like to ask: Is it not a very serious thing to turn aside from the normal path of justice because of threats of murder by terrorists launched against hostages whom they have taken?

Mr. Creech Jones: There has been no turning aside from the normal process of justice. It is a respite order which must come into operation when a request for an appeal to be heard before the Privy Council has been made.

Mr. Churchill: There has been no departure from the normal procedure as a result of terrorist activities?

Mr. Creech Jones: No, Sir.

On the 31st of January, 1947, another debate took place in the House of Commons about Jewish terrorism. Mr. Oliver Stanley, member of Parliament from West Bristol, made a long statement in which he said, inter alia, the following(4):

The last time this House debated the security problems in Palestine was last July. The Debate followed immediately the arrest of the leaders of the Jewish Agency, and came, I think, shortly after the outrage at the King David Hotel. Since that time outrages have continued almost incessantly. Hardly a week has passed since then when there has not been some loss of British life, or some injury to British personnel, or some damage to British property. During all that time the British personnel in Palestine, troops, police andadministration, have been in constant peril and under conditions of never ceasing tension. All of us on every side of the House will wish to pay a tribute to their behaviour under those circumstances ....

As I said, since last July there has been a continuation of this sordid story of outrage. During that time, it is necessary to point out, despite the number of murders of British personnel, no one responsible for those murders has been apprehended, convicted or punished. But I shall not deal today with the general run of the outrages in the past six months, I want to refer more particularly to the events of the last few weeks, because in that period we have seen in Palestine amost sinister development. We have seen the emergence of a new challenge, carefully thought out and skilfully carried out, before which, if it is not true to say that the Government have been forced to surrender, at least by some ill chance the facts have given all the appearance of such a course upon their part.

Let me recall to the House the details of the two incidents to which I wish to refer. First, there was the flogging case. On 27th December, a young Jew, who had been sentenced to imprisonment and caning, had the sentence of caning carried out. His offence, I believe, had been robbery with violence at a bank. On 29th December, a British officer and three non- commissioned officers were kidnapped and flogged. It was openly said by the Irgun that that was a reprisal for the caning of the youth. It was deliberately declared that reprisals of that kind would take place whenever a punishment of that nature was inflicted. That was 29th December. On 8th January, a sentence of caning on another Jewish youth, which had been passed by the military court and had been confirmed by the General Officer Commanding, was remitted by the acting High Commissioner for Palestine.

Then there is the case of Gruner. On 1st January, Gruner was sentenced to death for taking part in an attack on a police post. On 24th January, that sentence was confirmed by the General Office Commanding. On the evening of 26th January, Major Collins was kidnapped, and, on the morning of 27th January, Judge Windham was kidnapped and taken from the very court in which he was sitting .... These two gentlemen were kidnapped, under the express threat of reprisals, with the implied or actual threat that their kidnapping would be followed by their murder, if the sentence of death on Gruner was carried out. That was on the morning of the 27th.

On the afternoon of the 27th, it was announced that the sentence of death on Gruner had been stayed, because of an appeal to the Privy Council. On 28th January, Judge Windham was released and, a day later, Major Collins ....

I do not believe that, on these lines, it is possible to carry on the Government of Palestine. No authority can stand up against such blows. No troops, no police can carry out their duties in circumstances such as these. We cannot have a situation where the administration of justice and the punish- ment of offenders are being dictated by the criminals themselves. Frankly, so far as I am concerned, sooner than that this country should have to endure further humiliations of this kind, I would prefer that we should clear out of Palestine and tell the peoples of the world that we are unable to carry out our Mandate there. But, I myself believe that that would be a disaster, for Palestine and for all the communities there, and that such a retreat would only be the signal for a bloody civil war. Whatever the official policy is to be, any chance of its success depends on a firm and resolute authority in Palestine.

I would now like to ask him a question concerning the present relationship between His Majesty's Government and the Jewish Agency. In the past it has been a fluctuating relationship. When we discussed this matter in July, the leaders had just been placed in adetention camp. In November they were released, and a reconciliation took place following the statement by the Jewish Agency that they condemned terrorism. Yesterday I saw that the house of the acting leader of the Jewish Agency was searched by the police. I do not know whether that was a mere accident of geographical location, or whether it involved some new departure in policy....

I cannot believe that it would be possible for the campaign of the Irgun Zvai Leumi to continue if the Jewish Agency and, through them as their leaders, the Jewish community was giving really active cooperation to the forces who are attempting to suppress them.

Mr. Lipson, member of Parliament from Cheltenham, intervened in the debate and stated, inter alia, the following(5):

We are not dealing with reasonable men, but with fanatics who will pay no respect to the opinions of Jews in this country or anywhere else as far as I can see. I cannot agree with the right hon. Gentleman the Member for West Bristol (Mr. Stanley) that there is strong discipline among the Jews -

Mr. Stanley: In Palestine.

Mr. Lipson: I should have thought it was very doubtful. Anyhow, I do not believe the responsibility is primarily the British Government's. We have the right to insist that the British Government should carry out in Palestine the respon- sibility that is theirs, and I hope, as a result of this Debate, that the Minister will say that he is prepared to do so.

The situation at present is such that I believe we have got to the state where the terrorists are almost enjoying what they are doing in Palestine. It is something of a game to them to be able to flout the great British Government with impunity, and to get away with it practically every time; the appetite is growing upon what it feeds on. The events in Palestine are having repercussions not only in Palestine, but in this country as well. These terrorists are doing a great disservice to the Jewish cause throughout the world, and it is not by methods such as these that the cause of Jewry can be advanced. I therefore ask the Government to say clearly whether they have given the authorities on the spot all the powers they require to restore law and order in Palestine. Will they say what exactly is the objection they have to the establishment of martial law, if that is considered necessary by the authorities on the spot?

Sir Peter Macdonald, member of Parliament from the Isle of Wight, intervened in the debate and stated, inter alia, that the refugees in the U.N.R.R.A. camps were being recruited for the Jewish Army, and that that was why they were on their way to Palestine, with the connivance of the American and Russian Governments. He stated(6):

Sir P. Macdonald: An hon. Member has made the suggestion that more Jews should be admitted to Palestine to restore order in that country. I want to bring to the notice of the Government the type of emigrant who is now going there. What did we find when we were making our investigation? We heard that in the British zone in Austria there were U.N.R.R.A. camps occupied by Jews some of the displaced persons in connection with whom were making our investigation and we thought that we would like to visit them. We obtained permission from the general commanding, and we visited one camp. What did we find? We found that this camp was run under the auspices of U.N.R.R.A. A lady commandant a very efficient lady, who had been a Labour candidate at the last Election was in charge of this camp, and a very able commandant she made. She was as bewildered as we were, as to why she had been put in charge of this camp, because we found 5,000 or 6,000 Jews, who were there because the general commanding the American zone had asked our Commander-in-Chief if he would take these people off his hands temporarily, because his own zone was overcrowded with the same type of displaced person ....

This type of emigration to Palestine is not, I hope, one which the Government are being asked to encourage, because these are recruits for the Jewish Army, and that is why they are on their way to Palestine, with the connivance of the American and Russian Governments. They can have only one purpose and that is to embarrass the British Government. General Morgan reported these things before we saw them. He has now been brought home from Germany and given a bowler hat. Anyone who knows General Morgan knows full well that he is one of the most brilliant soldiers turned up by the war. He was in charge of all the detailed planning organisation for the invasion of Europe and there can be no question about the efficiency of that organisation. I saw it being assembled around my constituency for weeks, and it was the greatest piece of organisation that I had ever seen, and I have had many years' service. It was amost successful piece of planning and General Morgan is the man to whom the credit for it was given by the Minister of Defence, who ought to know. Because of General Morgan's great skill as an organiser, he was selected for this job of British representative on U.N.R.R.A. He was deputy to the heads of U.N.R.R.A. - first Mr. Lehman and later ex-Mayor La Guardia and because he told the truth in regard to the exodus of Jews, through Europe, to Palestine, he was suspended. Later he was reinstated for a time and then he was dismissed from his post by ex-Mayor La Guardia, and a Mr. Cohen was appointed in his place. Now we are told that he has been dismissed from the Army and given a bowler hat -not at his own request -at the age of 53.1 think that is a scandal. We can ill afford to lose the services of men like General Morgan when the Army is being reorganised as it is today. I consider that that soldier has had a very raw deal, just because, on this occasion, he exposed this exodus of Jews through Europe. He could do nothing else, in justice to his own friends in the Forces when he saw that sort of thing going on.

I am convinced that these people who are making their way to Palestine are creating most of the trouble there. No one hascontrol over them; they owe noallegiance toanyone. They are prepared to undertake any kind of atrocity so long as they are provided with the weapons to carry out such atrocities. I hope that when the Secretary of State for the Colonies replies he will give an answer to some of the questions put to him by my right hon. Friend the Member for West Bristol.

Mr. Younger, member of Parliament from Grinsey, intervened in the debate and stated, inter alia, the following(7):

The hon. and gallant Member for North Blackpool talks about mass searches at Tel Aviv. Any police or intelligence officer would tell him how unlikely it is that amass search by whole divisions who are untrained in this work will unearth any of the activities of a highly trained body like the Irgun. The trouble is that although the right hon. Gentleman who opened the Debate was quite right in describing the terrorists as criminals, he was not telling the whole truth. They are criminals, and something else as well. They are political bodies, and, as such, they excite acertain amount of sympathy and a very considerable amount of dread among the population. They have therefore the cooperation, passive if not active, of a large number of the population, and I believe that purely military repression would be likely to turn a large portion of the Jewish population in Palestine into their active allies.

Air-Commodore Harvey, member of Parliament from Macclesfield, intervened in the debate and stated, inter alia, the following(8):

The hon. Member for Grimsby (Mr. Younger) said there are only a few criminals at work. If there are only a few criminals, they are certainly creating a lot of bother. The hon. Member for Nelson and Colne (Mr. S. Silverman) congratulated the Government on what they have done in the last few months. I am sorry that I am unable to congratulate the Government on their policy during the last six months. What worries me is that by this lenient policy the right hon. Gentleman has made more difficulties for himself with the Arabs. I do not agree with what happened in Palestine in 1937 or 1938, but, nevertheless, the Arabs are now saying to themselves, "One hundred and eighty of our people over a period paid the supreme penalty for criminal offences, and not one single Jew has paid the penalty when he has committed murder." That will create difficulty in any negotiations which the right hon. Gentleman may undertake

The Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. Creech Jones, replied to the statements of the members of Parliament and stated(9):

I think the whole House shares the horror of the recent outrages and disasters which have occurred in Palestine during the last year or so. I should like on behalf of the Government to pay tribute to those in Palestine who have borne the strain and the responsibilities of administration in that very unhappy territory. It is not often recognised that, in spite of the difficulties, civil government has continued, and that alongside the police and the soldiers our civil administration have played a great part in contending with the obstacles and difficulties made for them by the conditions prevailing in that country ....

During 1946 there were 22 Jews sentenced to death, but the sentences were commuted to long terms of imprisonment up to a maximum of 20 years. There have been 83 Jewish terrorists convicted by the military courts for carrying or discharging firearms, and all of them have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. By way of information, 26 terrorists have actually been killed and 28 wounded, during actions with the Police and Military.

I want now to come to the two events referred to by the right hon. Member for West Bristol -the kidnapping of Major Collins and the kidnapping of Judge Windham. In regard to Major Collins, it is quite true that this was an outrage of the worst possible kind, that he was manhandled and severely hurt, and that immediately the information came to the notice of the authorities, appropriate action was taken to round up, where they could, those who were thought to be concerned in it. In regard to Judge Windham, I promised that I would inquire for the information of the House as to the degree of protection which was afforded to his court.

The question of Jewish terrorism was debated again in the House of Commons on March 3, 1947. Mr. Winston Churchill asked the Prime Minister whether he had any statements to make on the latest outrages in Palestine. The Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. Creech Jones, said he had been asked to reply and stated the following(10):

At half-past three on the afternoon of 1st March a vehicle drove into the wire defences of the Goldsmith Officers' Club in Jerusalem, while the guards were engaged by machine-gun fire from terrorists who had taken up position outside the wire defences. A heavy explosion followed which destroyed a considerable part of the building. A few hours later an attack was carried out on acar park at Haifa and anumber of vehicles wrecked. Other less serious outrages, of which full reports are not yet fully available, occurred in other parts of the country. Total casualties so far reported in this day of violence amount to 18 killed and 25 injured, of whom a number are civilians. In the last month 48 outrages have occurred in which 20 people have lost their lives and 31 have been injured.

Following on the events of 1st March the High Commissioner decided to place certain Jewish areas, from which it is well known most operations of the extreme terrorist groups are conducted, under statutory martial law. The effect of this decision is to withdraw normal facilities for civil government, including civil courts of law, from the areas concerned and involves the closing of banks, control of entry into and departure from specified areas of persons and vehicles by order of a Military Commander, and the trial of all criminal offenders in specified areas by Military Courts. Localities so far affected are a restricted Jewish area of Jerusalem and an area including Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, Benei Beraq and Petah Tikvah. His Majesty's Government have approved this action and the authorities in Palestine will receive the full support of the Government in any further action which may prove necessary. I am sure that they will carry the full support of this House.

I must again condemn these murderous outrages in Palestine. I need only add that they can in no way help towards a solution of the problems in that country, especially at a time when His Majesty's Government have announced their inten- tion to refer the whole question to the United Nations. The House will deplore the decision of the Jewish community not to respond more whole-heartedly to the recent invitation of the High Commissioner to cooperate against the terrorists. I desire also to express the profound sympathy of His Majesty's Government and that of the House with those who have been bereaved in these recent tragic incidents. All possible steps are being taken to bring the criminals to justice.

Jewish terrorism and anti-terrorist measures were debated in the House of Commons on June 25, 1947. Mr. Lipson, member of Parliament from Cheltenham, asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies if he would make a statement on the failure of the recent attempt to blow up the British headquarters at Tel Aviv when a Palestinian Jew, Zeev Werber, sacrificed his life to save the lives of 300 British troops. The Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. Creech Jones, stated(11):

Shortly after 11 o'clock on 18th of June an explosion occurred in the basement of a house near the Military Cantonment in Citrus House, Tel Aviv. On investigation the body of a young Jew was found at the opening of a tunnel leading in the direction of Citrus House. The tunnel was timbered and construction must have been in progress for some time. In the basement was a chalked message in Hebrew, reading, "The Hagana were here. We want you by force not to carry out your evil intentions. Signed, Hagana." Outside the building was a vehicle loaded with cement which had been removed without permission from the Municipal garage. It appears that the Hagana had learnt that an attempt by terrorists to blow up Citrus House was in progress, and had decided to frustrate it by blocking the entry to the tunnel with cement. The entry had, however, been booby trapped; and when the leader of the Hagana party, identified as Zeev Werber, the son of a municipal employee in Tel Aviv, attempted to enter, he was fatally wounded by an explosion. His funeral in Tel Aviv the next day was attended by representatives of the District Commissioner and of the Superintendent of Police in recognition of the fact that he had lost his life as a result of action which had probably prevented a serious terrorist outrage and consequent British casualties.

On July 15, 1947, the British Colonial Secretary was asked to make a statement about the two British Sergeants who were kidnapped and taken as hostages by Jewish terrorists. The Colonial Secretary stated(12):

It is with deep regret that I confirm the reports which have been current during the past 24 hours that the two British sergeants, Paice and Martin, abducted at Nathanya on 12th July, have been murdered by Jewish terrorists.

I received today the following telegram from the High Commissioner for Palestine:

"Most deeply regret to inform you that the two bodies were found at 9 o'clock this morning in an eucalyptus grove at Umm Uleiqa, near Beit Lid. They were hanging from two trees. Notices were pinned to the bodies saying that the men had been hanged by the National Military Organisation as British spies. The first body was cut down by an Army captain, and as he bent over it a small bombexploded, injuring him in the face. The surrounding area was found to have been mined."

In the long history of violence in Palestine there has scarcely been a more dastardly act than the cold-blooded and calculated murder of these innocent young men after holding them as hostages for more than a fortnight. I can only express what I know to be the deep feelings of horror and revulsion shared by all of us here at this barbarous crime. I am sure that this House would also wish me to convey their most sincere sympathy with the families and friends of the murdered men in the anguish they have endured during the days of waiting and now in their irreperable loss.

His Majesty's Government also pay tribute to the Services in Palestine for their courage and good bearing in conditions of risk and arduous responsibility. Such an outrage against men discharging a service in fulfilment of international obligations is not only abhorrent in the eyes of all civilised persons everywhere, but must surely mean the final condemnation of the terrorists in the eyes of all their own people. We can only hope that this latest act will stir the Jewish community in Palestine to root out this evil from their midst.

REPORTS FROM THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE, LONDON

1947

Note:
LHI = the Stern Gang
IZL = the Irgun Z'vai Leumi
NMO = the National Military Organization

2 JANUARY 1947
Jerusalem. At 1755hours two hand grenades were thrown at a military billet in Jerusalem and three hand grenades were thrown into the Air Ministry Works Department yard. No damage or casualties. At 18.15 hours a Police Patrol car was attacked with flame throwers, two of which were sub-sequently found in the vicinity. No damage or casualties. At 18.45 hours a mine was found on a road in the Sheikh Jarrah quarters. It was removed and detonated.

Haifa. At 17.55 hours the R.E.M.E. Camp at Hadera was attacked with automatic fire and a number of small bombs. Attack was beaten off and no damage resulted. One Arab T.A.C. was seriously wounded. At 18.42 hours a stolen tender left Kiryat Haim colony and ran alongside the military camp nearby, its occupants throwing bombs and firing automatic weapons. Fire was returned and vehicle returned towards the settlement where an explosion was soon to take place inside the tender. At 19.00 hours a Bren gun carrier was blown up by a road mine near Haifa Town, one British Officer received fatal injuries and four British O.R.'s were wounded. At 19.24 hours in Haifa an armoured OSR and truck of a combined Police and Military Patrol were blown up by a road mine. No casualties and slight damage.

Galilee. At 18.15 hours a party of Jews attacked a military car park in Tiberias with flame throwers. They were beaten off. Two flame throwers were subsequently recovered. No casualties and no damage.

Lydda. At 18.10 hours in Tel Aviv a British Police Billet and a military establishment were attacked with mortar bombs and automatic fire. One Arab T.A.C. was seriously wounded. Three Jewish civilians were slightly injured in the exchange of fire. A Jewish T.A.C. was shot and slightly wounded by three persons armed with automatic weapons. At 18.40 hours several explosions took place in a Tel Aviv street. No casualties and no damage. At about 18.40 hours a police armoured car was blown up in Tel Aviv. One British Sergeant was wounded and another slightly injured. Damage was caused to the vehicle. At 20.08 hours on the Haifa-Tel Aviv road a mine was detonated when two vehicles of the 6th Airborne Division were passing. No casualties and no damage. At 23.15 hours on the Haifa-Tel Aviv Road a taxi containing Police personnel and a wounded Jew was blown up by a mine. A Palestinian Corporal was slightly injured.
FO 371/61761

2 JANUARY 1947
Citrus House, Tel Aviv, was attacked with LMG and Rifle fire at 1810 hours, 2 January, 1947. The attack continued sporadically for one hour. Empty Bren magazines and Grenades were discovered by troops of 1 Para Brigade in neighboring houses. One Naafi girl and one Private soldier were injured. The same night, three attacks were made on vehicles of 6 Airborne Division, one near Hadera, when a mine exploded between two jeeps of 9 Airborne Squadron Royal Engineer, without damaging either. The second, North of Petah Tiqva, when a 3-ton lorry was mined and 5 soldiers injured. The third, South of Petah Tiqva, when a jeep was blown up injuring three.
WO 261/171

3 JANUARY 1947
At 0435 hours on 3rd January two Military vehicles were blown up on the Haifa-Tel Aviv road, near Petah Tiqva. Six Military personnel were injured. At 0750 hours on the 3rd January a Military vehicle was blown upnear Willhelma. Three British soldiers were injured.
FO 371/61761

5/6 JANUARY 1947
Road mining incidents occurred on the 5th and 6th in the areas of Rishon Jerusalem and Haifa. The only casualties were one officer and one driver injured near Camel College, Haifa.
WO 261/171

12 JANUARY 1947
At 1710 hours, 12 January, a truck entered the compound of Headquarters District Police, Haifa. The guardchecked the identity of the driver who parked the truck outside the canteen. The guard became suspicious and the truck was searched. On discovering a bomb in the back of the vehicle, orders were given to evacuate the building. A few minutes later the bomb exploded, killing two ~ritishconstables and two Arab TACs, and injuring a considerable number of Police personnel and civilians.
W0261/171

12 JANUARY 1947
At 17.25 hours on 12th January a small motor vehicle, believed to have been a stolen W.D. staff car and driven by a person in battledress and wearing Palestine Police shoulder flashes, entered the compound of the security area at District Police Headquarters Haifa. The guards became suspicious of the driver and he was challenged but ran and made good his escape. The vehicle was examined and it was found that a fuse had been lit. The alarm was sounded and evacuation was begun. Three minutes later the vehicle blew up causing extensive damage to the building and inflicting the following casualties: British Police: two dead, two dangerously wounded, seven seriously wounded, three slightly wounded. Palestinian: two Arab T.A.C.s dead, fifty T.A.C.s wounded.
FO 371/61761

13 JANUARY 1947
On 13 January, 1947 three Arabs, who had just appeared before the magistrates' court at Petah Tiqva for alleged assault on a Jewess, were waiting by the Petah Tiqva bus stop when a black covered-in truck drew up, and armed Jews abducted one of the three, who was shortly afterwards found nearby, castrated.
WO 275/79

23 JANUARY 1947
A most interesting incident took place at 1825 hours on 23 January, 1947, which indicates to some extent the development that may be expected in terrorist sabotage in the near future. A petrol point at Kfar Yona was destroyed by two charges and a proportion of the three thousand gallons which had been earmarked as a reserve for the move of 2 Para Brigade Gp on the following day, was lost.
WO 275/79

26 JANUARY 1947
On 26 January, 1947, Mr. H.A.I. Collins was in the house of a Jewish female friend in Mamillah Road, Jerusalem. At 17 10 hours a female caller asked to speak to him, and when he went to the door, he was attacked by three armed men who attempted to chloroform him. He struggled, but was struck on the head with a pick handle, placed in a sack, and removed from the building. It is reported that one of the abductors stated that they intended to take Mr. Collins to the Mamillah Cemetery and "deal with him there." Another armed man, according to the Jewish girl, remained with her until 1750 hours, after which he was released and informed the police, The alarm was sounded in Jerusalem at 1800 hours and searches were carried out. On the following morning, the Meashearim Quarter of the town was searched but without result. Unconfirmed reports stated that the Irgun issued wamings that Mr. Collins was being held in a house in Jerusalem, but that it was mined and would be destroyed if searched.
WO 261/566

27 JANUARY 1947
At 1230 hours on 27 January, 1947, a second kidnapping took place in broad daylight in Tel Aviv. While Judge Windham, President of the District Court was hearing a case, 10 armed men entered the building and simultaneously four men in the court room rose and held up all present in the Court. The judge was ordered out of the building and driven away in a car. All other offices in the building had been held up at the same time, and telephone communications severed.
WO 261/566

10 FEBRUARY 1947
On 10 February, three members of the Irgun were sentenced to death at a Military Court for their part in a fight at a road block on 29 December, 1946. During the night following the flogging of four members of HM Forces, acar carrying five Jews attempted to crash a road block near Petah Tiqva. In the gun battle which ensued, one of the Jews was fatally wounded and one soldier slightly wounded. The remaining four Jews were captured and a search of the car revealed a number of weapons and two rawhide whips. Although it was fairly clear that they had been involved in the flogging, they were charged with the illegal possession and use of arms.
WO 261/566

13 FEBRUARY 1947
At 0430 hours, 13 February, 1947, the Agricultural and Fisheries launch Forerunner blew up and sank with her bows "blown out." Shortly afterwards, a second explosion damaged a WD Z craft of the type used in transhipment of illegal immigrants.
WO 261/660

18 FEBRUARY 1947
A W.D. truck was blown up by a remote control road mine. Following military personnel were injured -2 British other ranks seriously and 3 British other ranks slightly. Following the incident, a number of persons were seen to run in direction Telarza Quarter. At 2120 hours on 18th February at Kilo 89-90 on Haifa-Jaffa Road opposite Gan Bayim Colony, a W.D. vehicle was blown up by a remote control mine. The driver a British other rank was slightly injured. Two Jews observed in the vicinity have been detained.
FO 37 116 1768

19 FEBRUARY 1947
At 0730 hours on 19th February on the main Gaza-Rehovoth Road just south of Rehovoth two mines disguised as kilos stones were found and disposed of. The mines were attached to electric detonating sets in a nearby orange grove.
FO 37 116 1768

19 FEBRUARY 1947
At 2200 hours on 19th February in Haifa, two electrically detonated mines exploded at the road side as two W.D. trucks were passing. No, repeat no, casualties, one vehicle was slightly damaged. At 2245 hours, mortar and small arms fire was directed at the R.A.F. airfield at Ainsheinar. Some 10-1 2 mortar shells were fired, no, repeat no, casualties or damage. Three small mortars have been found abandoned in vicinity, as well as sabotage material and a stolen truck.
FO 371/61768

19/20 FEBRUARY
1947 A Palestine Command Signals Regiment truck was blown up by two electrically detonated mines near the Moriah Cinema, Haifa, on the night of 19/20 February. The equipment used was apparently of the standard type, but only slight damage was sustained by the vehicle.
WO 275/79

20 FEBRUARY 1947
Sabotage of the Iraq Petroleum Company pipe-line took place on the same night at two different points. Firstly, an attempt was made to blow out the line 5 miles from Afula. The tins of explosive jam which were prepared by a demolition expert would have been adequate for cutting the pipeline, and their discovery obliged the Jewish cell in question to use a type of explosive unsuited to the task (ammonal or commercial blasting powder), and resulted in the failure of the operation as far as Afula was concerned. It is interesting to note that the job was carried out by untrained personnel, who made two major errors; the first of which was the use of a low-explosive which could only dent the pipe-line, and the second of which was the faulty placing of the charges, out of contact with the metal itself. The line at this point runs about a yard below the surface of the ground, and afirst attempt had been made to locate it wide of the mark. Two more holes were then dug, and an acid delay charge was inexpertly placed in each. It may safely be stated that the Afula sabotage cell consists of badly trained but willing Jews, who lost the charges which had been sent to them from Tel Aviv, and then tried to make up for having hidden them badly, by procuring the best substitute which they could find locally. Three saboteurs were seen by a patrol of the Arab legion. The second pipe-line attack took place on the same night at Wadi Malak near Haifa, and blew out a valve, causing some loss of oil, and a temporary closing of the line.
WO 275/79

28 FEBRUARY 1947
The explosion took place on the third floor in the corridor outside the Area Cash Office. The third floor was totally wrecked inside, but the shell remains undamaged. By some freak of explosives, the blast appears to have run around the central block of the building, flattening walls, etc., but doing little damage to the AreaCash Office on the second floor. However, the windows on the second floor were blown out and the ceiling holed. Casualties. Admitted to BMH, Haifa: 1 Arab civilian -injuries left thigh; 1 Arab Legion Soldier -fractured skull and internal injuries; 1 British Soldier -fractured skull; 1 British civilian -bruises and shock. Admitted to Government Hospital, Haifa: Yehud Melhud badly injured, since died. Josef Fogelstein fractured legs and ribs, since died. Three others who have since been discharged. At approximately 1430 hours, 28 February, 1947, two men dressed in the uniform of the Palestine Police entered the building. They were carrying a kit bag of unknown description. On reaching the Area Cashier Office, they deposited the kit and left. Shortly afterwards, the Arab guard saw the kit bag smoking and raised the cry of fire and ran off to collect the fire brigade. Private Ellis, a pay clerk in the Cash Office, turned a fire extinguisher on the kit bag which blew up.
WO 261/660

28 FEBRUARY 1947
At 14.50 hours today 28th February an explosion occurred in the offices of the Haifa Shipping Agency situated on third floor of Barclays Bank building in Kingsway, Haifa. The entire third floor suffered considerable damage. Preliminary reports indicate that 3 employees of the Haifa Shipping Agency were seriously injured. The Bank premises suffered little damage and the Bank staff were safely evacuated after the explosion.
FO 371/61768

28 FEBRUARY 1947
The second attempt to attack Barclays Bank took place on the afternoon of 28 February. It is not yet certain what the motive was, and it is possible that the source who forecast the attack had speculated on the question of monetary gain, since no money was taken, and there appeared to be no attempt at robbery. It is more likely, however, that the recent arrests deprived the Jews of the necessary cover party, and that the explosive was used up in spite of the impossibility of carrying out the original plan in its entirety. The most damaged portion of the building was the Admiralty Cash Office, the Area Cash Office, and the Haifa Shipping Office. No organization has specifically claimed the discredit for this outrage, nor has a bulletin as yet been published. The incident was carried out by two Jews dressed in Khaki uniform, carrying army packs, who walked into the building in a leisurely manner, talking to each other. Three minutes later, the packs were noticed to be smoking, and the warning was given to clear the building. Two minutes later, the packs exploded, fatally wounding, inter alia, a private soldier who had been trying bravely to put out the fuse with a stirrup pump. It is felt that some additional general directive should be issued to all ranks, on sabotage equipment, and particularly that it is only possible to extinguish a burning fuse by cutting it at least six inches from the burning end.
WO 275/79

1 MARCH 1947
At approximately 3.20 p.m. on 1st March, 1947, truck No. M740R drove into King George Avenue, Jerusalem, from Keran Kayemeth Street through the barbed wire surrounding Goldsmith House Officers Club in King George Avenue. One person dismounted and placed a package in the building. At the same time, automatic fire was opened upon the sentries at Goldsmith House from the vicinity of the houses adjacent to the Synagogue in King George Avenue. The sentries replied. A small explosion occurred at this time at the rear of the East side of Goldsmith House which set a tent on fire. During exchange of shots, a number of persons dressed in Khaki as British O.R.'s jumped from the truck and ran away. A heavy explosion then occurred causing extensive damage to Goldsmith House. Shortly before the explosion, a police vehicle proceeding along King George Avenue in the direction of Goldsmith House, was caught in cross-fire. Mr. Beynon, British Clerical Officer of Police H.Q., was killed and Inspector Price, British Constable Church and Mr. Cleary, British Clerical Officer of Police H.Q., were wounded. Casualties as known at present are twelve dead, including Jewish female Telephone Operator, fifteen injured. At least three more bodies are believed to be under the rubble.
FO 371/61/768

1 MARCH 1947
At about 1830 on the following day, 1 March, a party of Jews attacked the R.N. car park near Kingsway, Haifa, and destroyed seven trucks by placing explosive incendiaries in the driving cabs of five of them. The Jewish guards were held up at pistol point, while the charges were being placed, but it is thought that the Jews made their getaway some time before the explosion, trusting to the natural fear in which the local population holds them, not to give the alarm before the fires began. Brief descriptions of two of the Jews and further details of the incident passed to addressee No. 13.
WO 275/79

1 MARCH 1947
At 1845 six armed Jews held up T.A.C. guard on naval car park in Haifa. Explosives were laid and fourteen vehicles were damaged by three explosions. No (repeat no) casualties. At 1900 hours a W.D. truck was damaged by a land mine at Kiriat Haim on the Haifa-Acre Road. One British soldier was slightly injured. At 20.00 hours a land mine disguised as a kilo stone was detonated in Haifa as a military jeep was passing. Two N.c.0.'~ were killed and two were injured. At 20.00 hours a mortar shell was fired at a military camp at Hadera. No (repeat no) casualties. At 1847 hours near Khirbet Beit Lid a road mine exploded as two military vehicles were passing. Two British soldiers were injured. Vehicles were not damaged. At 1910 hours eight mortar shells were fired into a military camp near Khirbet Beit Lid, One British soldier was killed and three were injured.
FO 371/61768

1 MARCH 1947
At 1900 hours armoured car blown up near Nathanya cross roads. 1 Armoured car badly damaged. Car belongs to 4/7 DG. No casualty. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1 MARCH 1947
At 1945 hours a land mine was detonated on the Haifa- Jaffa Road near Petah Tikva. No casualties or damage. At 2000 hours two bombs were thrown at Rehovoth Police Stations. No casualties or damage to the stations. At 2035 hours a W.D. vehicle was blown up on the main road between Rehovoth and Rishon Lezion. One British Officer and two British other ranks were slightly injured. At 2315 hours an army vehicle was blown up by a land mine on the Haifa-Jaffa road. One British N.C.O. and one British soldier were killed. At 2345 hours a military vehicle was blown up by a land mine on the Rehovoth-Gaza Road. No casualties but considerable damage to vehicle.
FO 371/61768

1 MARCH 1947
At about 2000 hours, on 1 March, an Airborne Provost jeep was blown up by an electrically detonated shrapnel road &ne on the Mountain Road, Haifa. Three of the occupants were killed, or died of their wounds, and the fourth was seriously injured. The battery box was situated near a house owned by a middle-aged Jew and Jewess, who were sweeping up broken glass quite calmly when a member of the section arrived about two minutes after the explosion. Neither of them would answer a word of English, French or German, and it turned out later, that as usual, neither had seen anything. The saboteurs were seen, however, and a description obtained through an Arab source has been sent to D.I.D. Haifa, and addressee No. 13.
WO 275/79

1 MARCH 1947
At 2000 hours Water pumping station (Ras El Ain 143 168) fired on. No casualty. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1MARCH 1947
At 2005 hours Camp 80 (Hadera 142204) attacked. One mortar bomb fired but did not hit camp. No damage or theft. No casualty. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1MARCH 1947
At 2010 hours Mine exploded in front of 3 vehicles at Petah Tiqva (1401 1655). Slight damage. No casualty. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1MARCH 1947
At 2130 hours WD 3 tonner (from Mesa) blown up on mine at Qiriyat Motskin (1 57248). 1 soldier injured. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1MARCH 1947
At 2135 hours Half track vehicle of 2 KRRC blown up on mine on Rishon Rehovoth Road. Vehicle destroyed. 1 Officer and 2 soldiers slightly injured. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1 MARCH 1947
At 2145 hours explosion at rear of Rehovoth Police Station. No casualty. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

1MARCH 1947
Jerusalem. Goldsmith Officers Club blown up. One side of building demobilized. 2 Officers, I British Soldier, 1 Police Officer and 9 Naafi Civilians killed. 6 Officers, 2 British Soldiers, 2 Police Constables and 6 Naafi civilians wounded.
WO 261/171

1/2 MARCH 1947
Beit Lid. Two vehicles mined and destroyed. Haifa. Guard on Naval Car Park held up while bomb placed in a vehicle. Four vehicles damaged. Beit Lid. Camp 22 attacked with Mortar and Small Arms fire. 1 British Soldier killed and 3 British Soldiers injured. Nathanya. Armoured car blown up. Haifa. CRMP jeep mined. 3 British Soldiers killed and 1 British Soldier injured. Hadera. Mortar bomb fired into Camp 80. Rehovot. Two bombs exploded outside Police Station. Petah Tiqva. Mine exploded in front of three WD vehicles; slight damage. Rehovot. Half track blown up. 2 Officers and 2 British Soldiers injured. Kefar Yona. Camp 21 attacked with Mortar and Small Arms fire. North of Haifa. WD three tonner mined. Petah Tiqva. Scout car blown up. 2 British Solders killed. Aqir. WD vehicle mined.
WO 261/171

2 MARCH 1947
South of Rehovoth at 0030 hours. Vehicle of HQ 8 Infantry Bde ran over mine at 131 140. (Vehicle continued to HQ 2 KRRC). No casualty.
WO 261/566

2 MARCH 1947
At 0300 hours WD vehicle ran over mine near Aqir 131 140. Vehicle slightly damaged. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

2 MARCH 1947
At 1700 hours, 2 March, 1947, at MR 14122022, a 15 cwt of 6 Airborne Division Signals was blown up by a single mine. 100 yards of flex led into an Orange grove to the usual push-button type detonator. The 15 cwt was wrecked, the driver injured and in Hospital; the passenger slightly injured, but is now back on duty.
WO 261/660

2 MARCH 1947
At 1700 hours 15 cwt blown up South of Hadera 141205. Vehicle destroyed. Sigs vehicle. 1 British Soldier seriously
injured. 1 British Soldier slightly injured. Responsibility of Irgun Z'Vai Leumi.
WO 261/566

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Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem
By Issa Nakhleh

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